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Read the passage carefully. Then choose the correct answer.
Beach holidays are something that many people look forward to. City dwellers look forward to a break from the hectic pace of life in the city. People at work also long for a short break from work. They all feel a seaside environment soothes a fatigued body and an overworked mind. However, problems do crop up when too many people patronise public and private beaches during holidays. One problem is rubbish. When we look at some of our beaches today, we find plastic bags, polystyrene containers and empty soft drink cans strewn all over the place. What an eyesore for both tourists and visitors! More serious is the fact that it endangers the lives of sea creatures such as turtles that mistake plastic bags for jellyfish and ingest them. Beach-goers should be aware of these problems and treat littering as a serious offence.. Possible solutions to curb littering are the enforcement of stricter anti-litter laws by the government, fostering civic-mindedness among people, and limiting and closely monitoring beach recreational activities to preserve the cleanliness of beaches.

The government should enforce stricter laws to ensure beach-goers pay for littering. Even though there are signages warning people not to litter, I can safely say these are ineffective. I have seen on occasions when beach-goers carelessly throw their fishball or nugget sticks while strolling on the beach. These litterbugs think that such rubbish is negligible due to their insignificant size. However, rubbish is still rubbish no matter how small or insignificant! Beach authorities should slap these litterbugs with a hefty fine to deter similar acts in the future and also patrol beaches regularly to catch culprits in their act and impose the fine immediately. Hopefully, when beach-goers realize that their actions are being watched by the authorities, they might think twice about littering.

The public should always be civic-minded about their surroundings. One of the easiest ways to foster civic-mindedness is to catch them young. Families can play a big role in instilling in children this awareness of keeping beaches clean. When I was little, my family used to have picnic lunches at the beach during school holidays. Being a family of seven, we definitely created a lot of rubbish. However, my mother's motto was always `Leave nothing behind, but footprints!' And so after we had eaten, she made sure we put every scrap of paper or waste into plastic bags that she had brought along. She even made us pick up other people's litter. Later, we would dump the whole lot into the bins provided. If everyone could be a role model like my mother, I am sure we would not have dirty beaches today. Some people might think that they need not clean up as it is someone else's job to do so. They fail to realize that nobody wants to go to a stinking, polluted beach-including the sea creatures living along the beachshore that shrink away!

Last but not least, I think beach recreational activities such as banana-boat rides, horseback-riding and jet-skiing provided by hotels or private business operators should be limited and closely monitored. Many beach-goers love such activities as they make beach vacations more exciting. However, when people and animals are let loose on a supposedly beautiful beach, it will eventually deteriorate with rubbish. I remember a beach I once visited in 2002 and thought it the most beautiful with its white sand and its clear water. It was also not crowded, too. When I visited the same beach in 2010, 1 was dismayed to see how much it had deteriorated. The sand was brownish, the water was murky with debris, and it was crowded with people and activities. Beach recreational activities need not be banned altogether but hotel authorities must limit the number of business operators who rent their services to beach-goers or they should allocate specific areas for such activities. By doing so, large areas of the beach can be conserved.

Spending a leisurely day at the beach is probably the most enjoyable experience one can ever have. However, this experience will be marred if people take the cleanliness of beaches for granted. Littering by beach-goers must never be condoned. The sooner the necessary laws are enforced and the earlier people realize how pivotal it is to stop irresponsible behavior, the better the chances of protecting our beaches. A beautiful environment is for all to enjoy. May our beaches remain as beautiful as they should be!

    What do the following words or phrases refer to in the passage ?
  1. their ( paragraph II )
  2. One of the easiest ways ( paragraph III )
  3. they ( paragraph III )
  4. they ( paragraph IV )
  5. its ( paragraph IV )
    Answer the questions below based on the passage.
  1. In paragraph I, the writer stated, 'However, problems do crop up when too many people patronize public and private beaches during holidays.' What is the tone of the writer ?
  2. The writer said, 'However, rubbish is still rubbish no matter how small or insignificant !' in paragraph II. Describe the writer's feelings in one word when she said this.
  3. A turtle can die if it swallows a plastic bag thrown into the sea. In your opinion, what is another example of how humans endanger the lives of sea creatures ?
  4. What is the attitude of the writer's mother towards litter ? Support your answer with a sentence from the passage.
  5. List three suggestions by the writer to minimize pollution on the beach.
  6. What is the writer's tone when she said, ' May our beaches remain as beautiful as they should be !' ?
  7. In your opinion, will our beaches be more polluted or cleaner in the future ? Explain.
  8. In your opinion, what is the intention of the writer when she wrote the passage ?
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1.   culprits' / litterbugs'
2.   to instill awareness at an early age of the importance of keeping beaches clean.
3.   some people
4.   banana-boat rides, horseback-riding and jet-skiing
5.   the beach
1.   Concerned / worried / critical / pessimistic
2.   Angry / exasperated / hot / furious
3   Propellers of motorboats can cause injury to sea animals ( Accept other suitable answers )
4.   The writer's mother hates/despises litter or people who litter. This is seen from the mother's motto, 'Leave nothing behind, but footprints !'.
5.   a) The government should enforce stricter laws regarding littering.  b) The public should be aware of their behavior when patronizing beaches.  c) Hotel authorities should restrict recreational activities on the beach.
6.   Hopeful ( Accept other suitable answers )
7.   ( Accept suitable answers )
8.   To persuade the public to preserve or care for beaches

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