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Read the passage carefully. Then choose the correct answer.
 
The nature of human beings to go beyond boundaries and not stop until what is wanted is achieved has pushed us to live competitively. Fighting, destroying, and conquering are parts of the process to get power to dominate the land we live in. We explore, exploit, migrate and build nations based on customs and beliefs.. We become greedy towards resources in order to stay ahead of others. This is the reason that wars and conflicts are started so that we survive and secure these limited resources. These are the ugly facts that we see happening in the world today.

The need to maintain growth and economic stability leads us to fight over natural resources such as oil and gas. Nations that build their countries on these resources believe they have the opportunity to better living conditions, raise standards of living and more importantly, reduce poverty. Those without the benefit of these resources will have to support the population through agriculture, livestock rearing and fishing in the big blue oceans. Many countries have been blessed with many kinds of natural resources and they are able to support the 'over population' in their own country. But many also have nothing to offer their people who tragically also have to face natural disasters and affected economic activities.

Fights among countries over natural resources have brought about wars which have severely destroyed countries and those living in them. Many people have suffered and schools were closed because buildings and homes were destroyed. Economic activities came to a standstill and income generating activities ground to a near halt. War victims experienced, physical and mental pain and one can say that many would have taken a long time to erase these post-war effects from their memory.

Poverty can be caused by economic sanctions, natural disasters and political instability. Apart from this, the wealthier nations which have full control of the trading of goods and services would force poor nations to be. at their mercy. Populations can also be threatened by this at an individual level as jobs, business opportunities, and sources of income will be determined by those who have more influence and power. Without jobs and lack of opportunity in business, people cannot function as a society and build a better future for the generations to come. Many will not be able to have proper education, technical training, and guidelines to live well and above poverty level.

Poor nations can lift themselves out of the situation they are in if good education policies are implemented. Education systems need to be upgraded and the population encouraged to strive for higher levels of education. Opportunities must be provided for people to move forward in the search for knowledge and skills. A nation can improve its economy through its people who are better educated. They do not need to depend on natural resources and on richer nations for survival.

     
    What do the following words or phrases refer to in the passage ?
  1. This ( paragraph I )
  2. they ( paragraph II )
  3. this ( paragraph IV )
  4. themselves ( paragraph V )
     
    Answer the questions below based on the passage.
  1. What does the phrase 'the ugly facts that we see happening in the world today' ( paragraph I ) mean ?
  2. Based on your own observations, list three causes of poverty in your country.
  3. In your opinion, what are the measures that nations can take to overcome poverty ?
  4. What is the main idea of paragraph IV ?
  5. What are the three post-war effects that affected countries have to put up with ?
  6. In your opinion, how can poor nations free themselves of poverty ?
     
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    Answers
     
1.   greed towards resources
2.   countries with resources
3.   wealthier nations having full control of the trade of goods and services
4.   poor nations
     
1.   (a) Fighting, destroying, and exploiting are some ways to get power to dominate the land.   (b) Becoming greedy towards resources
2.   (a) Lack of education   (b) Natural disasters   (c) Political instability
3   * Provide basic education and upgrade the education system   * Create job opportunities   * Ensure political stability so as to draw in investments   * Engage in international trade if possible
4.   There are various reasons for poverty and poverty has its effects on the countries.
5.   (a) No or reduced economic activities   (b) Disrupted /halted schooling due to destruction of buildings and homes   (c) Long-term physical and mental pain and anguish for people
6.   a) Implement a good education system   (b) Provide opportunities for people to move forward in search of knowledge and skills
     
 
 
 
 

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