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Read the passage carefully. Then choose the correct answer.
 
Paint is a substance, usually a liquid, that is applied to surfaces as a protective coating or decoration. Opaque paints color and completely hide the material under them. Translucent paints coat the material without hiding its characteristics.

Almost all solid materials can be painted. Paints are used as protection against rust, weathering, and chemical corrosion. Brightly colored paints are used as warnings, identifying, for example, pipes that are dangerously hot. Liquid paints have two main parts; a pigment and a vehicle. Pigments are finely ground powders that give the paint color and opacity. In addition, pigments may also affect the texture, water resistance, penetration and wearing characteristics of a paint. Pigments remain in solid form in a paint; they do not dissolve in the vehicle which is a liquid that act as a base for the pigment. This means the pigment is merely suspended in the vehicle. The vehicle usually consists of a binder and a solvent. The binder is the part of the vehicle that holds the paint film together and makes it adhere to a surface. The solvent, also called thinner, is on the other hand a substance that reduces the consistency of paints so that the paints can be applied or removed easily. Solvents are usually volatile and evaporates completely leaving a solid film of pigment and binder on the surface. Turpentine, mineral spirits, solvent naphtha, grain alcohol and water are common paint solvents. Solid, or powder paints differ from other kinds in that they contain no vehicle.

The earliest known use of paint was in the cave dwellings of prehistoric men 50,000 years ago. The cave dwellers used red, yellow and black pigments with binders of animal fat. The Egyptian had seven colors, including blue and green, and a variety of binders. They are credited with the discovery of varnish. The Greeks and Romans made their contribution by in creasing the number of pigments available. The use of paints declined during the Middle Ages, but was revived during the Renaissance period, and has been increasing ever since. In the early days, for example, it was a mark of wealth to have a painted house. Today the majority of homes are painted; inside and outside.

Until the late 19th century, pigments and binders had to be mixed by the painter. Ready-mixed paints were developed in the 1860s and gained wide acceptance in the 1880s. Since that time improvements in the quality of ready-mixed paints have been made continuously. By the mid-20th century, the development of synthetic resins and rubbers caused a sudden increase in the numbers and kinds of paints available. The synthetic-based paints often did the job faster, better and more easily than earlier paints. Some special purpose paints such as antifouling paint for the bulls of ships and fire-resistant paint, were developed during World War II especially for military applications. Among the many other types of synthetic-based paints were latex household paints for both interior and exterior use; acrylic automobile enamels; heat-resistant paints; fluorescent paints; and powder paints.

     
  1.

The best way to hide unsightly marks on the wall is to use ______ paints.

       
    (A) opaque
    (B) fluorescent
    (C) acrylic enamel
    (D) heat resistant
       
  2. Paint is not used for ______.
       
    (A) decorative purposes
    (B) protection against rust
    (C) lubrication
    (D) identification
       
  3.

Which of the following colors is most appropriate on a dangerously hot pipe ?

       
    (A) black
    (B) purple
    (C) grey
    (D) yellow
       
  4. Paint sticks to the surface of the wall because of the presence of ______.
       
    (A) binders
    (B) vehicles
    (C) pigments
    (D) thinners
       
  5. The word 'volatile' means it ______.
       
    (A) is very well known
    (B) evaporates easily
    (C) remains as a suspension
    (D) can be removed easily
       
  6. Prehistoric cave walls are probably adorned with paintings done in ______.
       
    (A) blue, black and green
    (B) brown, blue and black
    (C) red, blue and yellow
    (D) red, yellow and black
       
  7. The Greeks and the Romans ______.
       
    (A) introduced ready-mixed paints
    (B) discovered new uses for binders
    (C) added more colors to the range
    (D) made paints less expensive
       
  8. Which of the following statements is correct ?
       
    (A) Liquid paints have a pigment and a vehicle.
    (B) Binders give paints its color.
    (C) Pigments dissolve in the binder.
    (D) The vehicle makes the paint opaque.
       
  9. Powder paints are unique because they ______.
       
    (A) are translucent
    (B) have no vehicle
    (C) can be remove easily
    (D) are thicker in consistency
       
  10 Paints with man-made resins are sometimes preferred because they ______.
       
    (A) are usually brighter
    (B) dry faster and better
    (C) are fire-resistant
    (D) come ready-mixed
       
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  Answers : 1A   2C   3D   4A   5B   6D   7C   8A   9B   10B
 
 
 
 

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