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Caving may be a once-in-a-lifetime thrill. Whether you find it so or not, do ensure you make preparations for a caving exploration. If you do not, it can turn out to be a very horrifying experience.

Here are some tips on cave exploration and finding your way out should you get lost. You should not go exploring caves without knowing your exact way in and out. Getting lost in a cave is a very dangerous situation that can resemble your worst nightmare. If you do plan to enter a cave, make sure that people outside know you are entering the cave, what time you will be back and when they should start calling for help if anything should happen.

Make sure you have flashlights and spare batteries before entering a cave. At every turn or corner place a marker on the floor indicating the direction you took. Always bring along a reliable guide. Many of Malaysia's caves are unmapped and no one should explore a cave on his or her own. Groups of four or six would be ideal.

Limit your time in a cave to a maximum of eight hours. More than that and you will get very tired and be less alert. Since you have an idea of how much time to be inside, you can plan on how much lighting you will need. One kilogram of carbide will give enough illumination for approximately six to eight hours. You should always carry back-up torches and extra batteries. If you are one of those with a weak heart condition or suffering from claustrophobia, you should limit yourself to just show caves.

Caving helmets are designed in such a way that primary lights can be secured to them. It might be a good idea to bring along a drysuit which is made for cave dives or in cold water. The suit itself is made of a laminated waterproof material, with watertight latex seals at the neck and wrists. Pockets on either side can carry safety equipment. Most cavers put a back-up light on their helmet. This way, if a primary light fails, one can still keep hands free. Another back-up light is also put into a pack. The cave diving rule of `Three Lights' makes a lot of sense for it is dangerous to be in a cave without a light source.

Rope is needed for hand lines and vertical drops. For these, always consider the condition and storage methods of any rope before using it as a safety device. Rope protectors should be used as a cushion between rope and any surface which might abrade it. Use a rope bag that is designed to protect the rope in transit and in storage.

Although some operators offer cave diving, it is a highly specialized sport and should only be undertaken by experienced divers and cavers. So if you intend to do cave diving, you might prefer a compact mask. Most divers carry at least one depth gauge and timer. These allow the diver to calculate what decompression stops to make when ascending at the end of the dive. Alternatively, all of these functions may be combined in a dive computer which you can bring along easily. It indicates depth, time and the required decompression stops.

 

Based on the passage given, write a summary on :

tips on exploring caves

what equipment to bring along

 

Your summary must:

be in continuous writing ( not in note form )

not be longer than 130 words, including the 10 words given below

 

Begin your summary as follow:

To ensure a safe and pleasant caving outing, you have ...

 
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Answer
 
To ensure a safe and pleasant caving outing, you have to make preparations. Do not go explore caves without knowing the way in and out. Always bring along a reliable guide. Inform someone what time you will be back. Make sure you have flashlights and spare batteries before entering a cave. Limiting your time inside to a maximum of eight hours is advisable. In this way, you can plan on how much lighting you will need. Put on a caving helmet with primary lights attached to them. Have back-up lights as well. You need ropes for hand lines and vertical drops. If you want to do cave diving, make sure you have the experience to do so. Bring a compact mask, a depth gauge and timer. (126 words)
     
 
 

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