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Summarize the passage about the effects of pollution in about 100 words.

 
Pollution in Its Many Forms

One of the most serious problems facing the world today is pollution, that is the contamination of air, land and water by all kinds of chemicals such as poisonous gases, waste materials and insecticides. Pollution has upset the balance of nature, destroyed many forms of wildlife and caused a variety of illnesses. It occurs in every country on Earth but is most prominent in industrial countries.

Breathing polluted air is very common to most people, especially those living in cities. In heavily industrialized areas, fumes from car exhausts and thick smoke from factory chimneys can be seen darkening the atmosphere. This would reduce visibility and make the air unpleasant to breathe. Large scale burning of fossil fuels, such as coal, gas and oil, in homes and industries also produces a wide range of pollutants. This includes sulfur dioxide which damages plants, destroys buildings and affects health. Other known pollutants are carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide and dirt particles. The fumes produced by car exhausts and factories would normally disperse in the air, but sometimes they are trapped by air layers of different temperatures. The result is a fog-like haze known as smog. Britain and some other countries introduced smokeless zones and smokeless fuels some years ago and smog no longer occurs, but it still remains a very real problem in Japan and the United States.

The motor car is a major source of pollution. In densely populated cities where there are millions of cars on the roads, the level of carbon monoxide in the air is dangerously high. On windless days, the fumes settle near ground level. Fumes from car exhausts also pour out lead and nitrogen oxide.

The testing of nuclear weapons, and the use of atomic energy for experimental purposes in peaceful times have exposed some people to levels of radiation that are too high for safety. Crop-spraying by aircraft also adds chemical poisons to the air.

Domestic rubbish is another very serious pollution problem. The average American citizen throws away nearly one ton of rubbish every year. Much of this consists of plastic, metal and glass packaging that cannot be broken down naturally. Instead it lies with old refrigerators, broken washing machines and abandoned cars in huge piles for years without decaying. Each year the problem of rubbish disposal becomes more serious.

Sewage causes another form of pollution. Most of it flows straight into rivers, where it is broken down by tiny bacteria. The bacteria need oxygen for this process, but because of the vast quantities of sewage, the bacteria uses up all available oxygen in the water, causing the death of countless fish and other river life. Rivers provide a very convenient outlet for industrial waste, as well as being a source of water for cooling in nuclear and other power plants.

Like rivers, oceans have been used as dumping grounds for waste of all kinds. One of the recent sources of sea pollution is oil and millions of tons of it spill into the sea each year. Oil not only pollutes beaches, it also kills fish and seabirds.

 
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Answer
 
Pollution, covering the contamination of air, land and water, is one of the most serious problems facing the world today. Pollution has destroyed ecological balance and wildlife and caused various illnesses. Air pollution caused by fumes from factories, car exhausts and crop-spraying has reduced visibility and caused breathing problems. Nuclear testing and use of atomic energy exposes people to high radiation levels. Burning of fossil fuels damages plants, buildings and human health. Undecayed domestic rubbish also presents problems. The bacteria breaking down sewage, oil and industrial waste uses up valuable oxygen needed by fish and plants. hence killing flora and fauna. ( 101 words )
     
prominent   very well-known and important
     
use up   to finish a supply of something
     
 
 

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