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Summarize in not more than 120 words, the various communicative methods practiced by animals in the wild.

 
Communication is part of our everyday life. We greet one another, smile or frown, depending on our moods. Animals too, communicate, much to our surprise. Just like us, interaction among animals can be both verbal or non-verbal.

Singing is one way in which animals can interact with one another. Male blackbirds often use their melodious songs to catch the attention of the females. These songs are usually rich in notes variation, encoding various kinds of messages. Songs are also used to warn and keep off other blackbirds from their territory, usually a place where they dwell and reproduce.

Large mammals in the oceans sing too, according to adventurous sailors. Enormous whales groan and grunt while smaller dolphins and porpoises produce pings, whistles and clicks. These sounds are surprisingly received by other mates as far as several hundred kilometers away.

Besides singing, body language also forms a large part of animals' communication tactics. Dominant hyenas exhibit their power by raising the fur hackles on their necks and shoulders, while the submissive ones normally "surrender" to the powerful parties by crouching their heads low and curling their lips a little, revealing their teeth in friendly smiles.

Colors, which are most conspicuously found on animals are also important means of interaction among animals. Male birds of paradise, which have the most gaudy colored feathers often hang themselves upside down from branches, among fluffing plumes, displaying proudly their feathers, attracting the opposite sex.

The alternating black and white striped coats of zebras have their roles to play too. Each zebra is born with a unique set of stripes which enables its mates to recognize them. When grazing safely, their stripes are all lined up neatly so that none of them loses track of their friends. However, when danger such as a hungry lion approaches, the zebras would dart out in various directions, making it difficult for the lion to choose his target.

Insects such as the wasps, armed with poisonous bites or stings, normally have brightly painted bodies to remind other predators of their power. Hoverflies and other harmless insects also make use of this fact and colored their bodies brightly in attempts to fool their predators into thinking that they are as dangerous and harmful as the wasps too.

 
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Answer
 

Animals make use of various kinds of communicative methods. Male blackbirds sing to attract female ones and also to keep other blackbirds off their dwellings. Mammals in the oceans like whales, 'sing' to interact with their mates far away too. Dominating hyenas raise their fur hackles in attempts to exhibit power while submissive ones crouch their heads and 'smile' to express respects. Birds of paradise attract female partners by displaying their colorful feathers while the stripes of zebras not only enable them to recognize each other, but also divert the predator's attention in times of danger. Finally, dangerous wasps are brightly colored to warn off others while some harmless ones try to fool their predators by using the same principle. ( 119 words )

     
dwell   to live in a particular way
     
conspicuously   very noticeable and tending to attract attention
     
gaudy   unpleasantly bright in colour
     
 
 

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