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Read the passage below and answer the question that follows.

The kind of television shows children watch and whom they watch them with can just be as important as the amount of time they spend in front of the tube, according to researchers at a children hospital in America. They reported this in a new study that finds an association between violent shows and peer problems.

Children who watch violent television programs especially those who watch such shows alone spend less time with friends than children who watch a lot of non-violent programs. Although the study could not determine a cause and effect relationship, researchers suspect one exists. They suggest that violent shows might teach and encourage aggressive behavior in children, which in turn isolates them from their peers. And that isolation, scientists suggests, appears to create a cycle that makes violent programming more attractive to lonely children.

Researchers agree that a lot of studies about violence and television deal with behavioral outcomes that don't resonate with people because they occur years later. The study was intended to produce real-life outcome that would motivate parents to consider the potential consequences of uncensored viewing that are more immediate. While concerns about the harmful impact of violent TV shows on children are scarcely new, their influence on children's friendships and social activities has been little studied.

This is considered a novel and interesting study as it looks at TV violence and peer relationships among children. The study suggests that the content of shows and the context in which they are viewed may influence social relationships in a more complicated way than previously believed.

Many researchers had speculated that TV viewing displaces time spent with friends. However, these researchers found that children who watched television with friends also spent more time socializing in other ways while those watched violent shows spent significantly less time with their peers.

Studies have found that the average school-age child spends 27 hours a week watching TV and that 61% of programs contain violence. To determine whether violent content affected relationships with peers differently than non-violent shows, researchers analyzed diaries kept by a parent or other adult during one week day and one weekend day for children between the ages of six and 12. The name of the TV show was recorded as was the presence of other people in the room and activities performed while a show was on. Crime shows, police dramas and cartoons such as Power Rangers were classified as violent, as were other shows where violence as a central theme. News, sports and non-fiction programming were omitted from the study.

Each hour of violent television watched y children aged six to eight corresponded to 20 minutes less time spent with friends, while children nine to 12 who watched an hour of violent shows spent 25 minutes less time with peers. Viewing non-violent shows did not affect the time spent with friends. The authors of the study say that viewing television together is one activity that enriches childhood friendships. The amount of violence watched in first grade typically predicts how aggressive the person will be 15 years later. The link goes from violent TV to aggressive behavior in children.

The message from the study is simple and clear. Parents, and not their children, should be in control of the TV. That means, parents must monitor what children are watching, not turning on the set in the morning and leaving it on all day and not allowing children to watch shows meant for adults such as CSI or Sopranos.

Thus, parents ought to be aware of this. It is not only the amount of time children are spending, it is what he or she is watching.


Based on the passage given, write a summary about

* the effects of television on friendships and violent behavior

* the role of parents


Credit will be given for use of own words but care must be taken not to change the original meaning. Your summary must be in continuous form and not longer than 130 words, including the 10 words given below.


Begin your summary as follows :

"There is a link between violent television shows and friendships ..."

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There is a link between violent television shows and friendships. Watching violent programs alone reduces the time children spend with friends and encourages aggressive behavior in children, isolating them from their peers. It creates a cycle that makes violent shows more attractive to lonely children Uncensored viewing influence children's peer relationships and social activities. Content and context of shows can influence social relationships as they prevent children from spending time with friends as well as socializing. Studies discovered children spend 27 viewing hours a week whereby 61% of programs contain violence. Watching non-violent shows did not affect the time spent with friends and it enriches friendships. There is a link between violent TV shows and aggressive behavior in children. Parents must monitor and control the content of children's television programs. ( 130 words )


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