Custom Search


[ Correct English | Common Errors | Words Differentiation | Sample Letters | Glossary of Correct Usage | Common Sentences | Q & A ]

[ English Compositions | Movie Reviews | High School Vocab | Advertisements ]

Sponsored Links




TOEFL Vocabulary
English Conversation
English Grammar
American Idioms
English Comprehension
English Summary
English News
Business Idioms

Summarize why the International Trophy Hunting Organization was set up, how it helps the Hunza valley and why it is criticized. Keep your summary within 160 words.

The North-Eastern part of Pakistan is bounded by the Hindu Kush, Himalayan and Karakorum ranges. It is one of the most beautiful places in the world. The Hunza Valley, as it is called, claims to be the Shangrila of James Hilton's novel, The Lost Horizon. In Shangrila people never grew old. They lived in a paradise setting among snow-capped mountains and green valleys.

Not only is this area one of breathtaking beauty but it is home to several endangered species of mountain animals like the Blue Sheep, the Markhor Goat, the Marco Polo Sheep, the Snow Leopard and the Ibex. Among these animals, the Marco Polo Sheep is almost extinct.

The Ibex is one of four species of mountain goats. It belongs to the genus capra. The others are the Rocky Mountain Goat, the Cashmere Goat and the Chamois. The Ibex is found in mountain ranges in parts of Europe, Asia and Africa. Its coat is brown to gray in colour. The male Ibex has a majestic head with heavy horns up to 1.5 metres long. The female has shorter horns. They are surefooted and agile animals. They live in herds and are herbivorous animals.

Hunting for wildlife is a deeply-entrenched tradition in the culture of the Hunza Valley villagers. Animals, especially the Ibex, are hunted for food. One Ibex could feed several families. It is estimated that about 200 Ibexes used to be killed a year for food. This activity placed the Ibex population in danger of extinction.

Anxious to save the Ibex population but not deprive the local inhabitants of a source of food, the government and conservation societies set up the International Trophy Hunting Organization. Hunting and killing of Ibexes by the local population have been prohibited. Only regulated hunting by foreigners is allowed. The organization makes available a strictly limited number of hunting permits for Ibex trophy hunters per year. The cost per trophy is about US$3,500. Successful hunters often donate a few thousand more. The reasoning is that with controlled hunting, only twenty Ibexes are killed in a year.

Almost all the money goes to the Hunza tribes for buying food, developing their farms and improving the facilities of their homeland. For example roads have been built and schools and women's vocational centres have been set up. Because of these benefits, the valley dwellers have so far been co-operative. They are strict about enforcing the law. Gamekeepers patrol the area around the clock to prevent poaching. The penalty for unlawful hunting is severe.

But cynics are questioning the system. How long can it be kept up? When will corruption set in? How damaging is this flow of money into the simple lives of the villagers? Will other endangered animals be included in this scheme? There is already talk of charging US$120,000 per kill for the beautiful and elusive snow leopards.

Voices of protests from the villagers have become strong. Some of them consider their lifestyle and culture to be threatened. Money culture has entered their lives. They cannot accept the reasoning behind sacrificing one Ibex to save ten. To some villagers, the presence of foreign hunters free to take part in a traditional activity now denied them seems disrespectful.

To these villagers, controlled hunting is an unwelcome intrusion in their lives. Tourists themselves have asked, 'Why kill? Isn't it enough to bring visitors to look at these magnificent creatures? Let us shoot with cameras, not hunting rifles!'


Main points
1 Ibex an endangered species of mountain goat
2 Wildlife hunting for food old custom in Hunza Vallery. 200 Ibexes killed a year
3 Organization to save Ibex: prohibits Ibex hunting by locals, sells permits to foreigners 4 Limited hunting means only 20 Ibexes killed per year
5 Money raised for villagers to improve livelihood and infrastructure

6 Critics: Long term effects, money culture, other animals later?

7 Villagers feel threatened, foreign hunters invading their culture

8 Tourists ask why kill? Take photos instead

Sponsored Links

The Ibex is a mountain goat living in certain mountain ranges. In Pakistan's Hunza Valley it is endangered. Inhabitants there traditionally hunt for wildlife as a food source. This activity reduced the Ibex population by 200 a year. An organization was founded to save the animal. Local inhabitants are strictly forbidden from hunting Ibexes. Instead foreigners buy special licences for trophy hunting. This means only 20 Ibexes are killed a year. The money raised goes to the villagers to buy food and improve their livelihood. So far the scheme is working.

However, critics are raising issues like the long-term effects, the money-based activity and the possible inclusion of other endangered species in the scheme. The villagers themselves are unhappy. The arrangement is unfair and disrespectful to them. Foreigners have stolen their old practice in the name of conservation. Other foreigners are also against this licenced-to-kill practice. Photograph and appreciate the animals alive, they say. (155 words)


001    002    003    004    005    006    007    008    009    010    011    012    013    014    015    016    017    018    019    020    021    022    023    024    025    026    027    028    029    020    031    032    033    034    035    036    037    038    039    040    041    042    043    044    045    046    047    048    049    050    051    052    053    054    055    056    057    058    059    060    061    062    063    064    065    066    067    068    069    070    071    072    073    074    075    076    077    078    079    080    081    082    083    084    085    086    087    088    089    090    091    092    093    094    095    096    097    098    099    100    101    102    103    104    105    106    107    108    109    110    111    112    113    114    115    116    117    118    119    120    121    122    123    124    125    126    127    128    129    130    131    132    133    134    135    136    137    138    139    140    141    142    143    144    145    146    147    148    149    150    151    152    153    154    155    156    157    158    159    160    161    162    163    164    165    166    167    168    169    170    171    172    173    174    175    176    177    178    179    180

Sponsored Links
American Slang
English Proverbs
English Exercises
Common English mistakes
Ancient Chinese stories
Junior English essays
High School English essays
Lower Secondary English essays