In the advanced countries such as Australia, England, Singapore and The
United States, the education curriculum and system aim to produce well
rounded individuals with good academic achievement and survival skills.
Australia, the focus of education is on the overall development of the child
during primary school years. Learning experiences are built around literacy,
mathematics, physical skills, studies of society, health and creative
activities. the emphasis is on developing basic skills in the English
There are no examination requirements for progression through school, and
no standardized examination at the end of primary school. In secondary
school, students are required to carry out research and complete assignments
that form part of the assessment. Learning objectives are achieved by
methods including investigation, experimentation, evaluation and
The core subjects for secondary schoolchildren are, among others,
English, Mathematics, Science, Human Society, Technological and Applied
Studies, Creative arts and Personal Development, and Health and Physical
School-based assessments usually include examinations, tests, analytical
exercises, written research reports, essays, laboratory, field studies, and
The British education system is bounded by the National Curriculum that
decides on the content to be taught in schools, sets targets for learning
and determines how students' performance will be assessed. Under this
system, students undertake a series of tests known as the Key Stage
National Curriculum Tests.
The curriculum is habitually reviewed to ensure it meets the varying
needs of students and society. In 2004, significant changes were made to Key
Stage 4 -- examinations taken in Year 11 -- which allowed schools to offer
students more choices to get the general knowledge and experiences necessary
for future employment.
In KS4, students are expected to develop skills like analysis, reasoning,
problem solving and communication.
Subjects such as ICT, Citizenship, Work-related Learning, and Careers
Education are compulsory on top of the core subjects to comply with the
The Ministry of Education in Singapore aims to provide a broad-based and
holistic education. according to the ministry's website, Singapore has been
moving towards a more flexible and diverse education system. the increased
flexibility in the school system includes an option to study a non-native
Mother Tongue Language as a third language from 2007.
For Primary One and Two, there will be 30 students per class from 2006
onwards, so that teachers are able to provide students with more
individualized attention to give them a strong grounding in literacy and
School Graduation Certificates will be introduced from 2008 to reflect
the students' academic as well as non-academic achievements.
At primary school level, project work will be incorporated into the
curriculum but will not be formally assessed as an examination subject.
The ministry will organize work attachment opportunities for teachers, in
business and community agencies locally and overseas, as part of their
teacher training initiative.
In the United States, elementary school students are taught five core
subjects -- English, Mathematics, Social Studies, Science and Physical
Electives such as Visual Arts (drawing, photography), Performing Arts
(drama, band), Foreign Languages, Computers and athletics are introduced
Furthermore, non-academic lessons are added to achieve all-rounded
individuals. Many states require schools to offer some form of courses
related to health where students will learn about nutrition, first aid, the
basic concepts of sexuality and birth control.
In middle and high school, the students participate in extra curricular
activities that amount to hours outside of the normal school day.
Thsi includes sports activities like football and basketball, which are
major events for schools and communities in the country, and also a major
source of funds.
Under the No Child Left Behind Act, teachers in core academic
areas must have a bachelor's degree, full state certification and
demonstrated competency in each core academic subject he or she teaches.