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Many varieties of the orchid can be grown fairly easily in a common windowsill. Others require a good deal of humidity to grow properly. It is not true that one needs a greenhouse to grow orchids. Many orchids even grow well without a greenhouse given proper light and water.

In nature, orchids can be divided into four types according to growing conditions. Most are classified as epiphytes found in tropical moist broadleaf forests or mountains and subtropics. These are anchored on other plants, mostly trees and shrubs. The rock growers, or lithophytes, cling to the surfaces of rocks. Saprophytes are those that grow in mulch, often on the forest floor. Finally, there are the dirt growers, or terrestrials, which anchor themselves in soil or sand. A few are lithophytes, similar to epiphytes but growing naturally on rocks or on very rocky soil. They derive their nutrients from the atmosphere, rainwater, litter, humus and even their own dead tissue.

The structure of the leaves corresponds to the specific habitat of the orchid. Species that typically bask in sunlight have thick, leathery leaves. The laminas are covered by a waxy cuticle. These retain their necessary water supply. For shade species, the leaves are tall and thin. They cannot tolerate a drop in atmospheric humidity or exposure to direct sunlight. Between these two extremes, there is a whole range of intermediate forms. The leaves of some species can be most beautiful. For example, the leaves of the Macodes sanderiana, a semiterrestrial or lithophyte, show a sparkling silver and gold veining on a light green background.

The sepals form the exterior of the bud. They are green at this stage, but sometimes, if the orchid blossom is purple, the buds can show a purple tint. When the flower opens, the sepals become intensely colored. In many orchids, the sepals are mutually different and generally resemble the petals. It is not always easy to distinguish sepals and petals. The reproductive organs in the centre have adapted to become a cylindrical structure called the column. On top of the column lies the stigma and the pollinia, a mass of waxy pollen on filaments.

If pollination is successful, the sepals and petals fade and wilt but they remain attached to the ovary. The ovary typically develops into a capsule. The ripening of a capsule can take 2-18 months. The microscopic seeds are very numerous, over a million per capsule in most species. They blow off after ripening like dust particles or spores, barely visible to the human eye.

Orchids are indeed some of the most beautiful flowers in the world. Breeding them can be a highly challenging endeavor. It needs a lot of patience because the orchid seeds are characteristically small and mortality rate of both the seeds and the sprouts is high. The National Orchid Garden in the Singapore Botanic Gardens is considered by some to be among the finest collections of orchids in cultivation open to the public. The Taiwan Orchid Plantation was set up to develop commercial orchid exports in the future.

Orchids have become a major market throughout the world. Buyers now bid hundreds of dollars on new hybrids or improved ones. Due to their apparent ease in hybridization, they are now becoming one of the most popular cut-flowers on the market. Though orchid hybridization has been happening for many years, only recently has new technology made it into what it is today.


Based on the passage given, write a summary on :

where orchids are grown

their characteristics


Your summary must:

be in continuous writing ( not in note form )

not be longer than 130 words, including the 10 words given below


Begin your summary as follow:

Orchids are divided into four types. They are epiphytes found ...

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Orchids are divided into four types. They are epiphytes found in tropical moist places, lithophytes which grow on surfaces of rocks, saprophytes and terrestrials, which anchor themselves in soil. The structure of the leaves corresponds to the habitat. Species that bask in sunlight have thick, leathery leaves. The shade species have tall and thin leaves. When the flower opens, the sepals resemble the petals. So it is not always easy to distinguish them. The reproductive organs are in the centre and have adapted to the column. On its top are the mass of waxy pollen. They are numerous and blow off after ripening. Orchids are indeed beautiful flowers. Breeding them can be highly challenging as it requires patience. They have become a major market throughout the world. (127 words)

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