Cyber security is an important issue. A computer or cyber crime can be broadly
defined as criminal activity involving an information technology infrastructure,
including unauthorized access, illegal interception by technical means of
non-public transmissions of computer data to, from or within a computer system,
data interference, systems interference and electronic fraud.
In very clear
terms, when a computer is manipulated to deal with data or a software program in
a way that creates loss or damage, a computer crime takes place. This means that
a theft or breach of trust has taken place by electronic means. There are
several types of computer crimes. Hacking is one of them. It is unauthorized
access by any person using a computer and any other communications device to
break computer security or circumvent it to
enter a computer system. It is air infringement that is at par with `breaking
The gravity of hacking is to be weighed against what is actually done upon
illegally entering the computer system. Data may be stolen or integrity of the
information may be affected which is akin to sabotage and in both cases, there
is damage. Some hackers may do nothing but browse. If the intention of a hacker
is to destroy files, this can be classified a crime by electronic means.
Pirated software is often made available on unauthorized sites on the
Internet and is fairly common. Some people download or purchase pirated software
from these sites. Providing pirated software for others to use is a copyright
infringement. When you buy software, you do
not own it but only acquire the right to use it. Copying a program in its
entirety is a contribution to software piracy whereas fair use only allows the
reproduction of a part of the copyrighted work.
Computer fraud is dishonest misrepresentation of fact intended to induce
another to do or refrain from doing
something which causes loss. the act of fraud will result in obtaining a benefit
by altering computer input in an unauthorized way. An example is employees
altering the data before entry or entering false data or by entering
unauthorized instructions or using unauthorized processes. Another example is
manipulating banking systems to make unauthorized identity theft with reference
to ATM fraud.
As cyber crimes are skyrocketing, with one recent study finding that ninety
percent of corporations surveyed have suffered a computer break-in in the last
year, new laws have been passed to impose stricter penalties on those guilty.
However, the crimes are best prevented not with new criminal penalties but with
common sense and the use of simple digital architecture that enhances security.
Since computer criminals are so difficult to prosecute, digital architecture
plays an even more important role in fighting crime.