The rapid industrial development in Malaysia has created significant
industrial waste pollution problems that need immediate attention. Domestic
waste and industrial waste are discharged unto surface water through the sewage
systems. In some cases, industrial waste is released directly unto surface
On land, the release of industrial waste is closely controlled. However,
offshore oil and manganese extraction lead to direct discharge of pollutants
into the seas. Radioactive waste is dumped at sea in large concrete barrels to
decay. Often, the barrels will start to have defects after a while.
Representatives of factories often ship waste onto sea to dump it illegally
because it is very expensive to have their water purified. Oil is released into
the sea through oil tankers and shipwrecks and pesticides are applied to water
to control aquatic pests. Paints on boats will decay during long trips on the
ocean and will eventually end up in the water.
The effects of pollutants are noticed mostly in small inland seas and lakes.
This is because the oceans have a natural dilution system for incoming
pollutants whereas lakes have no effective outlet. The pollutants can exist in
water in different states. They can be dissolved or they can be in suspension,
which means that they exist in the form of droplets or particles. These
pollutants can travel farthest when they are in solution in a river that is fast
High-rate microbial processes have been studied in recent years in the
attempt to develop cost-effective and yet, full-scale waste treatment
technologies. Management of industrial waste is a growing concern in Malaysia.
The waste if improperly segregated or
disposed off can lead to dangerous results. Therefore, the proper management of
such toxic and hazardous waste requires
discipline, vigilance and at times, just common sense.
The co-disposal of toxic industrial waste together with municipality in
landfill disposal sites can cause potential release of toxic material into
environment through leaching. The best approach to waste management is not to
produce waste but to produce less waste. this aim can be promoted in several
ways such as applying proper waste management, selecting processes that produce
less waste, recycling and reusing generated waste and therefore, reducing the
volume of waste that must undergo disposal.
In Malaysia, the control of hazardous wastes is governed by the Environmental
Quality Act 1974. A hazardous waste is a solid or liquid or gas that could pose
dangers to human health or the environment. Under the Environmental Quality
Regulations, scheduled wastes are required to be handled properly and as far as
is practicable, be rendered innocuous prior to disposal. These categories of
wastes shall be disposed off at prescribed premises only and be treated at
prescribed premises or treatment facilities only. Currently, 107 categories of
scheduled wastes are listed under these regulations. Generally, they cover acute
hazardous and toxic hazardous chemicals if abandoned, discarded or intended to
be discarded or disposed into the atmosphere, placed on any soil or surface of
any land or inland wasters.
The industrial waste has to be treated through projects waste treatment.
Appropriate cost-effective measures in industrial waste treatment technology
will be developed. The aims are to achieve cost-effective industrial waste
management through the development of appropriate microbial treatment and
detoxification technologies, characterization and evaluation of landfill and
identification of resident microbes.