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The rapid industrial development in Malaysia has created significant industrial waste pollution problems that need immediate attention. Domestic waste and industrial waste are discharged unto surface water through the sewage systems. In some cases, industrial waste is released directly unto surface water.

On land, the release of industrial waste is closely controlled. However, offshore oil and manganese extraction lead to direct discharge of pollutants into the seas. Radioactive waste is dumped at sea in large concrete barrels to decay. Often, the barrels will start to have defects after a while. Representatives of factories often ship waste onto sea to dump it illegally because it is very expensive to have their water purified. Oil is released into the sea through oil tankers and shipwrecks and pesticides are applied to water to control aquatic pests. Paints on boats will decay during long trips on the ocean and will eventually end up in the water.

The effects of pollutants are noticed mostly in small inland seas and lakes. This is because the oceans have a natural dilution system for incoming pollutants whereas lakes have no effective outlet. The pollutants can exist in water in different states. They can be dissolved or they can be in suspension, which means that they exist in the form of droplets or particles. These pollutants can travel farthest when they are in solution in a river that is fast flowing.

High-rate microbial processes have been studied in recent years in the attempt to develop cost-effective and yet, full-scale waste treatment technologies. Management of industrial waste is a growing concern in Malaysia. The waste if improperly segregated or disposed off can lead to dangerous results. Therefore, the proper management of such toxic and hazardous waste requires discipline, vigilance and at times, just common sense.

The co-disposal of toxic industrial waste together with municipality in landfill disposal sites can cause potential release of toxic material into environment through leaching. The best approach to waste management is not to produce waste but to produce less waste. this aim can be promoted in several ways such as applying proper waste management, selecting processes that produce less waste, recycling and reusing generated waste and therefore, reducing the volume of waste that must undergo disposal.

In Malaysia, the control of hazardous wastes is governed by the Environmental Quality Act 1974. A hazardous waste is a solid or liquid or gas that could pose dangers to human health or the environment. Under the Environmental Quality Regulations, scheduled wastes are required to be handled properly and as far as is practicable, be rendered innocuous prior to disposal. These categories of wastes shall be disposed off at prescribed premises only and be treated at prescribed premises or treatment facilities only. Currently, 107 categories of scheduled wastes are listed under these regulations. Generally, they cover acute hazardous and toxic hazardous chemicals if abandoned, discarded or intended to be discarded or disposed into the atmosphere, placed on any soil or surface of any land or inland wasters.

The industrial waste has to be treated through projects waste treatment. Appropriate cost-effective measures in industrial waste treatment technology will be developed. The aims are to achieve cost-effective industrial waste management through the development of appropriate microbial treatment and detoxification technologies, characterization and evaluation of landfill and identification of resident microbes.

From paragraph 1
  1.

Name two types of waste.

    From paragraph 2
  2.

Give two causes of the pollution of the sea.

    From paragraph 3
  3.

When do pollutants in a river travel farthest ?

    From paragraph 4
  4.

(a) The word segregated refers to ______.

(b) The word hazardous refers to ______.

    From paragraph 5
  5.

Why does the writer say the best way is to produce less waste ? Write your answer in your own words.

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Answers
 

1.

(i) Household waste.

(ii) Industrial waste.

 

2.

(i) Oil spills.

(ii) Dumping of factory waste.

 

3.

They travel farthest when they are in solution in a river that is fast flowing.

 

4.

(a) separated

(b) dangerous

 

5.

This is because there is no end to discharging if so much waste is discharged. The situation is more difficult to manage. But if there is less waste, the situation is easier to manage and there is less to dispose.

 
 
 
 

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Comprehension 1

 

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