title

Custom Search

 

[ Correct English | Common Errors | Words Differentiation | Sample Letters | Glossary of Correct Usage | Common Sentences | Q & A ]

[ English Compositions | Movie Reviews | High School Vocab | Advertisements ]

Sponsored Links

<<Prev

Comprehension

Next>>

   
TOEFL Vocabulary
English Conversation
English Grammar
American Idioms
English Comprehension
English Summary
English News
Business Idioms
 

The liver is the main organ in our body. It is capable of converting drugs into forms that can be readily eliminated from the body. Given the diversity of drugs in use today and the complex burden drugs impose upon the liver, it is not surprising that a broad spectrum of adverse drug's effects on liver functions and structures has been documented.

Many drugs may affect the liver adversely in more than one way. The effects range from mild and transient changes in the liver function to complete liver failure, maybe even resulting in death. Therefore, the use of the following drugs requires careful monitoring of their effects on the liver during the entire course of treatment. The damage done to the liver and the loss of liver cells prevent the liver from functioning normally. Besides playing an important part in the digestion of food, the liver has a major role in metabolizing drugs and making proteins, including those that help the blood to clot.

A serious liver disease is cirrhosis. It is the scarring of the liver involving the formation of fibrous tissue associated with the destruction of the normal constitution of the organ. It can be the result of long-standing injury, most commonly due to alcohol in excess. Of course, there are a number of other important causes. Cirrhosis is a serious condition. Only thirty per cent of patients will survive five years after its diagnosis. The outlook is worse if the cause is alcohol and the patient continues to drink.

The rate of cirrhosis in a country is directly related to the average alcohol consumption in that country. Half of all cases of cirrhosis happening in a country are due to alcohol excess. A country with a large group of heavy alcohol drinkers is likely to have more people suffering from cirrhosis.

The symptoms of liver cirrhosis depend on how much damage has occurred to the liver. In the early stages, there may be no symptoms at all. The disease may be discovered as a result of an investigation for another illness. As the disease progresses, weakness, lack of energy, loss of appetite, nausea and weight loss may develop. In later stages, the liver is struggling to perform all its functions and some or all of the symptoms may be present. Jaundice, that is, the yellowing of the skin, is one of the symptoms. The shape and appearance of the nails may change. They may be more curved and maybe white rather than pink. Skin changes too. About a quarter of jaundice patients will have darkening of the skin. Fluid retention is common at some stages in cirrhosis. In the very late stages of the disease, serious complications may occur. These include vomiting of blood, either from ulcers in the stomach or from leaking varicose veins in the lower end. This is serious and requires hospital treatment.

Apart from removing the cause, cirrhosis of the liver cannot be treated. The approach towards it is, therefore, to deal with it in order to reduce the complications of the disease. Some of the other approaches are taking water tablets for the treatment of fluid retention in the legs. A daily dose of vitamins, mineral supplements and calorie supplements can help to maintain nutrition.

From paragraph 2
  1.

(a) What type of effects do drugs have on the liver ?

From paragraph 3

(b) What is cirrhosis ?

    From paragraph 2
  2.

List two functions of the liver.

    From paragraph 3
  3.

(a) What is the main cause of cirrhosis ?

From paragraph 4

(b) Which country has more cases of cirrhosis ?

    From paragraph 5
  4.

Name two symptoms of cirrhosis.

    From paragraph 6
  5.

What does the writer suggest with regards to cirrhosis ? Answer in your own words.

Sponsored Links
 
Answers
 

1.

(a) The effects can be mild to very serious, even causing death for the drugs impair the ability of the liver to perform properly.

(b) Cirrhosis is the scarring of the liver due to the formation of fibrous tissue causing the destruction of the liver.

 

2.

(i) Helps in digestion of food.

(ii) Helps in metabolizing drugs and making proteins.

 

3.

(a) Consuming excessive alcohol.

(b) In a country with a greater number of alcohol drinkers.

 

4.

(i) Lack of energy.

(ii) Loss of appetite.

 

5.

Since it cannot be cured, the only and the best approach now is to reduce the complications of the disease.

 
 
 
 
 

301    302    303    304    305    306    307    308    309    310    311    312    313    314    315    316    317    318    319    320    321    322    323    324    325    326    327    328    329    330    331    332    333    334    335    336    337    338    339    340    341    342    343    344    345    346    347    348    349    350    351    352    353    354    355    356    357    358    359    360    361    362    363    364    365    366    367    368    369    370    371    372    373    374    375    376    377    378    379    380    381    382    383    384    385    386    387    388    389    390    391    392    393    394    395    396    397    398    399    400    401    402    403    404    405    406    407    408    409    410    411    412    413    414    415    416    417    418    419    420    421    422    423    424    425    426    427    428    429    430    431    432    433    434    435    436    437    438    439    440    441    442    443    444    445    446    447    448    449    450    451    452    453    454    455    456    457    458    459    460    461    462    463    464    465    466    467

Comprehension 1

 

Sponsored Links

 

 
 
American Slang
English Proverbs
English Exercises
Common English mistakes
Ancient Chinese stories
Junior English essays
High school English essays
Lower Secondary English essays