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The earth is losing its forests. Presently, trees cover about 30 percent of the earth's surface, but they are being destroyed at an alarming rate, especially in the tropics. Timber harvesting is a major reason for the destruction of the forests. Trees are used for building houses, making furniture, and providing pulp for paper products, such as newspapers and magazines. At least 40 hectares of rainforest are being felled every minute, mostly in order to extract the valuable timber.

Another way that man is destroying the world's forests is by burning them down. In the Amazon, for example, rainforests are being burnt down at a rate of 20 hectares a minutes. The main reason for this is to clear the land for farming. Farmers in rainforest countries are often poor and cannot afford to buy land. Instead, these farmers clear rainforest h land to raise their animals or grow their crops. Because tropical rainforest soil is so poor in nutrients, framers cannot reuse the same land year after year. In the following years, farmers just clear more land, destroying the forest piece by piece. Already more than 30 tropical countries have reached a critical level of forest destruction and one-time exporters of timber such as Nigeria and Thailand now have to import timber for their domestic needs.

Should we get all excited and worried about the loss of the forests ? Yes, we should. Healthy trees are a vital part of the environment, and keep the entire balance of the atmosphere agreeable to all life forms. Forests are catchment areas for rainwater, holding the rainwater in the leaves of the trees, so that it will not sink so quickly into the earth's crust. Furthermore, the forests help maintain the water cycles in the area. The masses of cloud that provide the rain are formed over the moist forests. Thus, the destruction of forests may also lead to a reduction in rainfall over the area, resulting in drought.

Forests also protect and feed the earth's fragile mantle of soil. Tees curb soil erosion. Without the tree cover, the land is totally exposed to the agents of erosion, such as strong winds and heavy rainfall. The strong winds blow away the top layers of the soil and he flowing water carries it away into the rivers, lakes or sea. Consequently, the once fertile land is converted into a barren wasteland. In addition, denuded hill slopes are vulnerable to landslides, which can be catastrophic disasters, resulting in the loss of homes and lives.

Apart from preventing soil erosion and landslides, forests, with their abundant supply of leaves, give compost back to the land, thus helping it to remain fertile. the leaves of the trees and the droppings of the birds, animals and insects which live in them, fall to the ground, where they decay and replenish the soil with mulch, minerals and manure.

Forests are rich in flora and fauna. The rainforests are home to over half of the entire species of the world, which are being destroyed with the rainforests; and some of those species that are killed will never return again. Plants and creatures are god's gift to us and they serve mankind, each in its own way. For example, plants are the source of our clothes; and the rubber used for tyres comes from trees. Plants are also the source of sugar, coffee, tea, rice, wheat and many delicious and nutritious fruit.

In addition, most of the medicines that have been used by men are derived from plants and animals. Most of the Chinese medicines, for example, such as ginseng and ginkgo, are herb-based. An example from the realm of modern Western medicine is the drug 'vincristine'. This drug, which is derived from a jungle plant, is used in the treatment of leukemia. Many of those species that have not yet been discovered may very likely cure cancer, AIDS, and many of the other diseases and virus-based illnesses of today. In fact, one research scientist in the field of botany has concluded that in Costa Rica's forests alone, 15 percent of the plant species may have the potential as a treatment for cancer. What potential life-saving medicines are we losing each day as the forests are being destroyed ?

Apart from all this, let us keep in mind the most basic function of trees, which is that they provide oxygen. All living creatures need to breathe oxygen in order to stay alive. A treeless planet will be an airless and, therefore, a dead one.

From paragraph 1-2 :

(a) State two main ways that forests are being destroyed.

(b) What is the main purpose for the burning of the trees in the forests of the Amazon ?


From paragraph 2 :


What point is the writer trying to show in mentioning the fact that Nigeria and Thailand have to import timber ?

    From paragraph 3 :

(a) Explain why the destruction of forests may lead to drought.

(b) Find a word in this paragraph which means "very important".

    From paragraph 4 :

(a) Why is soil erosion a greater problem in areas that have been cleared of forests ?

(b) Explain the meaning of "... denuded hill slopes ..." without using the italicised word.

    From paragraph 7 :

What is 'vincristine' ?

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(a) They are felled and burnt down.

(b) The land is cleared for cattle grazing.



They have lost too much of their forests.



(a) Forests are catchment areas for rainwater, preventing rainwater from sinking so quickly into the ground. Masses of rain-bearing clouds form over the moist forests. Thus the destruction of the forests may cause a reduction of rain in the area.

(b) Vital



(a) Without the tree cover, the land is totally exposed to the agents of erosion, such as strong winds and heavy rainfall.

(b) Hills that have been cleared of all vegetation.



It is a drug used in the treatment of cancer.


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Comprehension 1


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